Jose Abreu and Trayce Thompson had RBI doubles for Chicago, which wore throwback uniforms that debuted in 1976 and included white wide-collared untucked jerseys paired with navy blue pants and white socks.
Thompson had two hits and Avisail Garcia added two RBIs for the White Sox, who had lost three of their previous four.
Rodon (6-5) left after giving up a two-run homer to Franklin Gutierrez in the seventh inning. He was charged with both runs and three hits while striking out five and walking three in six-plus innings. He came in 1-1 with a 1.23 ERA during his previous three starts.
After Rodon left, Mark Trumbo singled and Seth Smith doubled but Zach Duke struck out Brad Miller and Mike Zunino before getting Ketel Marte to fly out to center.
Seattle also had a chance in the eighth after getting runners to second and third with two outs, but Trumbo grounded out to second.
David Robertson got the last three outs for his 27th save in 33 chances.
Roenis Elias (4-7) gave up four runs and nine hits in 6 2/3 innings for Seattle. Making his first start since July 2, Elias remained winless since beating Houston on June 19.
Seattle snapped a two-game win streak in the opener of a 10-game, 11-day road trip.
Kyle Seager didn’t start but pinch-hit for Zunino and grounded out to end the game. Seager entered the day hitting .196 in August and is expected to return to the lineup Friday.
Nelson Cruz went 1 for 4 and extended his streak of getting on base to 37 games with a third-inning single. The streak is the American League’s longest this year.
Mariners: LHP James Paxton (strained left middle finger) is expected to make his next rehab start Friday at Triple-A Tacoma. … DH Jesus Montero fouled a pitch off his midsection in the fifth and was pinch-hit for in the seventh.
White Sox: Eaton was hit in the back in the fifth but stayed in the game.
Seattle RHP Taijuan Walker (9-7, 4.72) faces Chicago LHP John Danks (6-11, 4.90) in the second game of this series. Walker is 2-0 with a 3.71 ERA since his one-hitter July 31 at Minnesota, while Danks is coming off an Aug. 23 loss to Seattle when he allowed seven runs and eight hits over five innings.